African Athletes Challenge Western Notions Of Doping

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has increased the authority of World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) to become a major authority for the fight against cheating. WADA is adamant that doping refers to the usage of banned. Substances and techniques designed to boost the performance of athletes.

Are prohibited substances define solely by their chemical composition? This is not the case according to West African athletes. Many of whom use spiritual techniques to improve their performance serious.

Soccer is play in West Africa is often associate with witchcraft. The practice is known as witchcraft in Nigeria and Cameroon the practices are known as jars or juju. They are use by athletes to boost performances in ways like doping, in the sense that WADA define it and also to destabilize their opponents. The main ingredient in these practices however, isn’t the chemical substance of these substances, but rather their spiritual power.

Spiritual Doping

As per Cameroonian footballers with which I carried out my fieldwork the spiritual realm is interspersed with the material world, and the actions of the first have immediate and profound impacts on the second. In West Africa, accusations of spiritual performance-enhancing practices can be much more serious than those involving materials and chemicals.

The idea jars jars is difficult to identify, in part because it is kept in the shadows and constantly evolving. The details about these practices can found in reports and allegations. Stories refer to tiny pieces of specific herbs, bits of tree bark or threads of varying sizes that players receive from healers who entrust them with supernatural abilities.

Conscient of the fact that Cameroonian referees might punish them if found guilty, the footballers cover them in shin guards in their shoes, or those rubber straps on their shorts. Other concoctions a mixture of herbal extracts prepare by healers who drink by footballers, or cleanse their hands, faces, or feet in.

Substances And Herbs Doping

These substances and herbs can boost performance and permit players to perform amazing actions on the pitch. While certain FIFA officials have voiced concerns about these claimed African types of doping they’ve been wary of their chemical components but have ignored their more vital spiritual aspects.

One could dismiss jars as a psychological belief or as a form of an occult belief. However, the fact that athletes often scrutinize others of using it suggests that it’s more than that. When Cameroonian footballers show extraordinary skill in the game, opponents , and even their teammates, carefully scrutinize them for indication that they are using jars.

One of my players said to me that during a match, opponents made him take off his pants on the side of the court insisting that the player was hiding a spiritual token. Some users have been spot by the distinctive scent that they soak with.

Like doping, the majority of footballers in Cameroon are highly disapproving of using jars, arguing that players should get rid of the practice once and for all.

Age Tampering Doping

Another type that is cheating, a public fact within the international soccer world is when players lie regarding their age. Players from all over the globe submit documents to their clubs of choice which state that they are not more than 19 years old. age.

In Cameroon preparation for trials at European football clubs typically involves obtaining documents that prove that the player is younger than he is. While football clubs and sporting bodies attempt to identify and sanction footballers, West African footballers do not view the practice as cheating.

They alter their age in the hope to level the playing field. They seek to make up for the fact that young athletes from their Global North, who from an early age have greater access to an excellent equipment and sports facilities and are in a better situation to develop their athletic abilities into a successful career.

As international sporting organizations talk about athletes taking individual responsibility for different types of cheating. Young African footballers confront the power dynamics that they believe made against them.

In adjusting their age they are challenging ethical high ground upon the which international sports organizations claim to be based. And prove that cheating is not always cheating, but rather an opportunity to test the power of unequal relationships.

What Exactly Is Cheating And The Definition Of It?

The anti-doping policies of WADA found on the separation of the mind and the body. The biological and the physical, as well as the spiritual. The focus is always on the physical as if being an clean athlete means being free of banned chemicals.

Although the form of regulation WADA will apply globally is beneficial, it is not in line with the values. That are the norm for West African athletes, for who the spiritual and physical are deeply intertwine.

Are jars a form of doping that WADA should try to regulate? Do international sporting bodies need to take action against players’ age-related tampering? Absolutely not.

The importance of faith in sports isn’t limit to Africa. It is not just a matter of religion. Thai manager of Leicester City famously flew buddhist. Monks to Thailand for blessing the team during the club’s incredible 2015-2016 campaign.

The African game gives us a different insight into what performance-enhancing and cheating really mean. The change in perspective lets us to not take. The definitions of WADA and IOC as a given and stop interpreting them as universal truths.

Instead, we need to look at them as what they are: hegemonic ideas created in a specific time period. Derived from a certain philosophical viewpoint and interpreted from the position of power.

Religious Or Spiritual Make You More Ethical At Work

Are religion and spirituality able to promote ethical conduct at work? This is a controversial question and our research that includes discussions with forty Indian high-level executives suggests it could. We discovered that virtues embedded in various traditions of spirituality and religion (Hinduism, Jainism, Islam, Sikhism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism) are a factor in moral decision-making at work.

Three executives explained that these values encouraged virtues such as honesty, flexibility and moral excellence, as well as acceptance and accountability. A top executive from the automotive sector spoke about the virtues of flexibility:

…our Islamic religion teaches us to never shut the door to other’s opinions. I follow this principle or value, or however you prefer to describe it when I am working. I listen to my coworkers. We try to resolve our differences and find a compromise always in the effort to hold true to our fundamental convictions. Certain executives believed it was best to quit from their job when confronted with a moral dilemma.

Ethical Values Embedded

They blamed this on the ethical values embedded in their spiritual and religious beliefs when they made this difficult decision. A senior executive in the IT industry said the fact that he quit the company he worked for because of his religious beliefs did not align with the company’s constant copyright violations. He remained true to his word:

I couldn’t rest at night for a few nights, and I contacted the Zoroastrian religious advisor, who suggested I look for work elsewhere. I quit the company for the current company and believe I avoided an arrow.

Seven executives who didn’t belong to a spiritual or religious group suggested that non-religious virtues that focus on humanistic ethics as well as professionalism should be promoted.

India is an all-faith country and it was suggested that a multi-faith viewpoint could help employees stay neutral. A senior executive from the media sector suggested that workplaces should allow people who are not religious or spiritual to be a part of their own beliefs about human nature:

Ethics should be practiced on a human scale. When we open it to interpretation by religion it can be the subject of unending debates and confusion. Ethics for me is a matter of secularism. You must be aware and consider the implications of your business decisions to establish the ethical guidelines. Religion may provide some sort of model, however to me, it’s an obstacle.

Spirituality Based On Religion

In spirituality based on religion, certain influences from some or all of the religious traditions could be use in order to reach attaining a goal. In non-religious spirituality, there is usually no religion. The spirituality of these people is built on humanistic or secular values such as the need to be connect with people in the workplace or in the society, and fulfilling a higher purpose in the world, without necessarily calling attention to God or the Creator.

Recent research has linked religious belief and spirituality with moral and ethical corporate responsibility; altruistic behaviour as well as ethical and social actions.

Certain studies have questioned these conclusions, but by presenting evidence that contradicts the conclusions. Some have argued that religious belief and religion-based religious beliefs could lead to unsavory behavior. For instance, the discrimination against someone who doesn’t share the same beliefs. It could even be a factor in hiring procedures and how people treat colleagues in the workplace.

Ensuring Ethical Decisions

Our study that was publish in May 2017 analyzed the role played by religious belief in the growth of moral qualities in India. These virtues were compassion and justice, temperance and transparency. They also exhibited conscientiousness, honesty, moral fortitude, and wisdom.

The virtues of the person translate into competences that encourage ethical conduct. In this case, empathy is related to the various ways to communicate with colleagues and build strong working relationships. Examples are nurturing a particular individual, building friendly relations” and “not using seniority to get subordinates to do something unethical.

Furthermore, temperance is a focus on your integrity as a person and helps to avoiding contact with someone of dubious character and not wavering from one’s ethical principles.

Capacity To Be Ethical

Conscientiousness is the capacity to be ethical even when confronted with the temptation. A top executive from the engineering sector told me that when a colleague advise him to alter the cost of goods to increase markups that were unreasonable He refuse to do it and was advise to. When I deal with my customers, I will make sure not to deceive them. I will ensure that they get the best quality.

Moral questions and contradictions despite the vast array of spirituality and religions unsavory behaviours like corruption, bribery, and nepotism seem to be widespread in India.

One possibility is that some people justify their ethical lapses due to external pressure to comply with. The pressure to conform, coupled with personal greed may outweigh any desire to maintain ethical standards.

Continuous training in the form of workshops, seminars, and case studies that focus on ethics is essential. For instance an executive who runs consulting service businesses.

Photographer Shannon Taggart Takes Viewers Inside The World

The world seance conjures images of darkened rooms, enthralled mediums, bizarre events and ghost voices. For many modern-day viewers the images may appear like something from an earlier time or even the result of a film rather than an actual belief system.

In the past two decades, American photographer Shannon Taggart has been exploring modern spiritualism, an ancient religion that believes in communicating through the spirits of the dead.

Her photography sequence Seance, which was recently display in the Albin O. Kuhn Gallery at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County is a glimpse into the often misunderstood faith.

As an art curator and historian who has study images of apparitions and the science of conspiracy theory I was drawn to the images of Taggart because they provide a lens through which to study the role of spirituality in contemporary life.

In a time of an outbreak of global pandemics, intensified political divisions, and the global danger of climate change I’m wondering if spirituality could be likely to see a significant revival?

Spiritualism Comes Knocking World

Spiritualism first emerged in Rochester, New York, in 1848. Two twins, Kate and Margaret Fox reported hearing an unsettling rapping sound coming from the wall of their bedroom. The girls claimed that they were communicating via a series of knocks that resembled ghosts of someone who passed away in the house a few some time earlier. The story spread fast, and the girls seen in front of crowds of people to show their abilities.

Then, reports of similar events taking place across the United States appeared in the media and speculation of communicating with deceased people was the subject of popular speculation.

Spiritualism began to develop in the private. The people who communicated with spirits, also known as mediums, operated from their homes. There, they were able to organize seance circles where small groups attempted to communicate with spirits.

As time passed, spiritualists began showing up at conventions and at outdoor summer camp events. In the 1870s, they were beginning to settle down in communities with similar beliefs as well as centers for study like the spiritualist community of Lily Dale, New York which was establish in 1879.

Spiritualists Perform World

Alongside having seances, spiritualists perform healing they believe in the power of prophecy. Mediums claim they transmit information from dead people to those who live, as well as information about the future.

Many spiritualists sought to make fantasies of the future come to life today by promoting the cause of progressive politics, such as the fight against abolitionism, women’s rights, as well as Indigenous rights.

Spiritualism, for instance, has given women a unique part in religion, allowing an audience as well as a platform to communicate messages that were as personal as well as political. Suffragettes Marion H. Skidmore, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony all made speeches about Lily Dale. The spiritualists’ beliefs were a radical departure from the traditional political and religious authority.

Ghosts Inside The Machine

It was the Fox sisters allege capability to communicate with dead people was later refer to in the form of the spiritual telegraph, which was a reference to the then-new invention of Samuel B. Morse. When spiritualism became popular, believers were drawn to technology as tools for communicating with spirit and to demonstrate spirit existence.

Photography evolved into the perfect medium with the ability to make icons of the spiritual. Through the use of astronomical, microscopic, or X-ray imaging, cameras could make invisible things visible. Despite the emergence of altered photos during the 19th century, the status of the photograph as a genuine depiction of reality was remain and, as one could argue it remains in large part.

Photography also played an important part during the 18th century’s commemoration culture because. The camera could stop time and make absent loved ones present, even if it was only a visual mark.

American Civil War World

The American Civil War brought death at a staggering rate into people’s homes by way of illustrated newspapers. Black clothes, mourning jewelry , and the art of post-mortem photography were common in a society of mourning.

In the 1850s, New York portrait photographer William Mumler and his wife, Hannah Mumler, a medium. Host portrait sessions where the spirit of the participants dear love ones manifest in the photographs that taken.

Mumler’s stunning portraits also raised the possibility of Hucksterism. Mumler was accuse of fraud by the claimants who claim that he fabricated the photos and only the showman P.T. Barnum was a witness for the prosecution.

In the twentieth century Sherlock Holmes creator Sir Arthur Conan Doyle famously rallied to defend. British medium Ada Emma Deane, who was also accuse of fabricating ghost photographs

The dual-sided coin of faith and doubt is a constant theme in these historical instances. But the psychological effect of these images in those grieving was still powerful.